100 cities to turn smart

The Union Cabinet has cleared the Smart Cities Mission — under which 100 smart cities would be built.

Aim of the Mission:

The aim of the mission is to more efficiently utilize available assets, resources and infrastructure to enhance quality of urban life and provide a clean and sustainable environment.

Selection of the Cities:

  • Cities to be developed will be selected through a ‘competition’ intended to ascertain their ability to achieve mission objectives.
  • Each state will shortlist a number of smart city aspirants, which will prepare proposals for the Centre.
  • Each selected city would get central assistance of Rs 100 crore per year for five years.
  • To begin about 20 cities would be selected after the state governments come forward with names of cities they want nominated.
  • There will be special emphasis on participation of citizens in prioritizing and planning urban interventions.


  • The Mission will be implemented through ‘area based’ approach, which includes retrofitting, redevelopment, pan-city initiatives and development of new cities.
  • Under retrofitting, deficiencies in an identified area will be addressed through necessary interventions.
  • Redevelopment enables reconstruction of an area that is already built but not amenable for any interventions.
  • Pan-city components could be interventions like intelligent transport solutions that benefits residents by reducing commuting time.
  • The focus will be on core infrastructure services like
    1. adequate and clean water supply,
    2. sanitation and solid waste management,
    3. efficient urban mobility and public transportation,
    4. affordable housing for the poor,
    5. power supply,
    6. robust IT connectivity,
    7. governance, especially e-governance,
    8. citizen participation.

Smart City

What are Smart Cities?

  • A ‘smart city’ is an urban region that is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure, sustainable real estate, communications and market viability.
  • It is a city where information technology is the principal infrastructure and the basis for providing essential services to residents.
  • There are many technological platforms involved, including but not limited to automated sensor networks and data centres.
  • In a smart city, economic development and activity is sustainable and rationally incremental by virtue of being based on success-oriented market drivers such as supply and demand. They benefit everybody, including citizens, businesses, the government and the environment.


  • The concept of smart cities originated at the time when the entire world was facing one of the worst economic crises.
  • In 2008, IBM began work on a ‘smarter cities’ concept as part of its Smarter Planet initiative.
  • By the beginning of 2009, the concept had captivated the imagination of various nations across the globe.
  • Countries like South Korea, UAE and China began to invest heavily into their research and formation.

Are they necessary?

  • Across the world, the stride of migration from rural to urban areas is increasing.
  • By 2050, about 70% of the population will be living in cities.
  • The idea will work as millions of poor are migrating to cities for job opportunities and better standard of living.
  • Existing cities are unable to bear any extra load of migrants.
  • Masturbation in India has for the longest time been viewed as a by-product of failed regional planning.
  • Though it is inevitable, and will only change when the benefits of urbanization overtake the costs involved, it is an opportunity for achieving faster growth.
  • With increasing urbanization and the load on rural land, the government has now realized the need for cities that can cope with the challenges of urban living and also be magnets for investment.


The concept is not without challenges, especially in India. Some of the Major challenges are:

  • The success of such a city depends on residents, entrepreneurs and visitors becoming actively involved in energy saving and implementation of new technologies.
  • There are many ways to make residential, commercial and public spaces sustainable by ways of technology, but a high percentage of the total energy use is still in the hands of end users and their behavior.
  • There is the time factor — such cities can potentially take anything between 20 and 30 years to build.
  • Land acquisition will also obviously be the biggest hurdle while setting up smart cities.


  • Smart cities can be developed over a minimum area of 500 acres and will require at least Rs 6,000 crore of investment for basic and back-end infrastructure.
  • Experts say it can generate employment for at least 200,000 people per city.
  • 10 such new cities can bring in about Rs 9 lakh crore investment (including investments by users) and usher in unprecedented economic growth.
  • The smart cities will result in new orders for city planning, engineering, designing, and construction companies.
  • The project will also generate huge interest among the global players who might want to partner such projects.
  • One sector where results can be made visible almost instantly is urban development, where both public and private sectors can identify 500-5000 acres at a single location and kick start the development process.

Sources: The Hindu, PIB, BS.


Protests against Road Transport Bill

The nationwide transport strike called by various trade unions against the Road Transport and Safety Bill is likely to affect normal life across the country.

Why the protest?

  • They say that the proposed fines are too high.
  • According to provisions of the Bill,
    • Motor Vehicle Act 1988 will be scrapped

    • State RTOs will close.

  • Protestors are against some provisions in the proposed bill.
  • The provisions in the Bill are said to be against the principles of jurisprudence.
  • Instead, a
    • Central authority will be created and private entities will issue and renew licenses.

  • This move is not being welcomed.

Road Transport and Safety Bill:

  • It is a Bill which aims to provide a framework for safer, faster, cost effective and inclusive movement of passengers and freight in the country thus enabling the mission of ‘Make in India’.

Highlights of the Bill:

  • 2 lakhs lives to be saved in first 5 years due to reduction in road traffic accident deaths
  • 4% GDP improvement on account of increased efficiency and safety of road transport sector
  • 10 lac Jobs to be created with increase in investment in the sector
  • The new Bill makes significant departures from the 1988 Motor Vehicle Act as it includes safety in construction, design, maintenance and use of motor vehicles and roads as a major component.
  • The Bill provides for more stringent penalties to offenders.
  • A graded penalty point system would now act as a deterrent and improve traffic condition whereas electronic detection and centralized information of offenses would facilitate to identify repeat-offenders.

New proposed Agencies and systems:

  • The Bill proposes to introduce an independent agency called the National Road Safety Authority of India,

Untitledwhich will be an independent, legally empowered and accountable expert lead agency.

It shall be accountable to the Parliament and Central Government.

  • The new Bill provides for the establishment of State Safety Authorities which shall act in accordance with the directions issued by the National Authority.
  • The Bill seeks to establish a unified driver licensing system in India which will be transparent. Such a system shall facilitate any time anywhere license application mechanism in the country and mitigate duplication of licenses from
  • various regional transport offices.
  • According to the Provisions of the Bill there will be a unified vehicle registration system to enable electronic and online submission of applications for registration at any registering authority leading to real time interchange of data relating to such an activity.
  • On the safety issues, the Bill envisages for enforcement of modern safety technologies.
  • It also contains the provision for creation of a motor vehicle accident fund for immediate relief to the accident victim.
  • It gives special emphasis on safety of school children and security of women.
  • The Bill also includes the setting up of a Highway Traffic Regulation and Protection Force (HTRPF).


For further reference:

Sources: The Hindu, PIB, BS.

Cabinet delinks Assam from new border pact

The Union Cabinet has approved the long-pending – and controversial – Land Boundary Agreement with Bangladesh, ahead of bringing the Constitution Amendment Bill associated with it in Parliament next week. However, in a major departure, it has De-linked Assam from the agreement for now.

About the land swap deal:

  • The swap will involve handing over 17,000 acres of land to Bangladesh in return for 7,000 acres in 111 enclaves in West Bengal, Assam, Tripura and Meghalaya, and was first decided under the 1974 Land Boundary Agreement (LBA) between India and Bangladesh, but never ratified by Parliament.
  • It will require an amendment to the Constitution (the 119th amendment) ratified by both Houses of Parliament with a two-thirds majority.
  • The deal relates to demarcation of boundary under the Land Boundary Agreement between the two countries.
  • India and Bangladesh have been negotiating the land swap for years to resolve a long-running border conflict.

How will it affect the existing citizens:

  • The number of people to be involved in the whole swap is approximately 52,000, of which about 15,000 are on the Indian side of the border.
  • Under this intended agreement, the enclave residents could continue to reside at their present location or move to the country of their choice.
  • A number of Indian nationals living in Indian enclaves in Bangladesh territory are going to be adversely affected as they would lose their claim to Indian citizenship.
  • Now, it becomes the responsibilities of the governments of India and Bangladesh to ensure that there is no “discrimination” against them.


Some people have been opposing the deal on the ground that Assam will stand to lose more territory as compared to Bangladesh in the exchange of enclaves.

Sources: The Hindu, PIB, BS.

AMRUT Mission

In a bid to recast the country’s urban landscape, the Centre has given nod to the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT), with an outlay of Rs 50,000 crore.


What is AMRUT?

  • AMRUT : Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation
  • Replaces Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission  (JNURM)
  •  But in a significant departure from the earlier mission, the Centre will not appraise individual projects.

Details of the Mission:

  • AMRUT adopts a project approach to ensure basic infrastructure services relating to
    • water supply,
    • sewerage,
    • storm-water drains,
    • transportation
    • Development of green spaces and parks with special provision for meeting the needs of children.
  • Under this mission, 10% of the budget allocation will be given to states and union territories as incentive based on the achievement of reforms during the previous year.
  • AMRUT, which seeks to lay a foundation to enable cities and towns to eventually grow into smart cities, will be implemented in 500 locations with a population of one lakh and above.
  • It would cover some cities situated on stems of main rivers, a few state capitals and important cities located in hilly areas, islands and tourist areas.
  • Under this mission, states get the flexibility of designing schemes based on the needs of identified cities and in their execution and monitoring.
  • States will only submit state annual action Plans to the centre for broad concurrence based on which funds will be released. But, in a significant departure from JNNURM, the central government will not appraise individual projects.
  • Central assistance will be to the extent of
    • 50% of project cost ….for cities and towns with a …..population of up to 10 lakhs
    • 33% of project cost ….for cities and towns with a …..population of above 10 lakhs.

Sources: The Hindu, PIB.

‘NREGA, the only insurance for India’

The World Bank recently said that the spike in ‘unmet demand’ for MGNREGA jobs is an indicator of increasing rural distress.

  • Since the scheme is the only and the best bet India has for mitigating the impact on the poor of the recent unseasonal rains, it has asked the government to take steps aimed at arresting delays in wage payments and the rising unmet demand for jobs.

Details of a Study:

  • The analysis of MGNREGA in a study shows that the programme’s impact on rural poverty in Bihar is only 1 percentage point as against its potential of reducing poverty by at least 14 percentage points.
  • Among the main reasons why the potential is not being realised, the study says, is that the supply side is too slow to respond to the demand for work from the poor, workers not receiving the full scheme wage and delays in wage payments.
  • The study also says that if MGNREGA were to be implemented effectively, its design would ensure that there is no unmet demand for work.


  • The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005, also known as the “Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act” is an Indian labour law and social security measure.


  • To guarantee the ‘right to work’ and ensure livelihood security in rural areas.
  • To create durable assets that would augment the basic resources available to the poor.
  • To follow the Directive Principles of State Policy enunciated in Part IV of the Constitution of India and conforms to the Article 23 of the Universal Declarationof Human Rights that defines the right to work as a basic human right.


  • By providing at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work.

More Details:

  • The provisions of the law also adhere to the principles enunciated in the Constitution of India under Article 21 of the Constitution of India that guarantees the right to life with dignity to every citizen of India.
  • This law guarantees the right to work to the people of India and hence is termed as a “People’s Act”.
  • It is believed that targeting poverty through employment generation is the effective way to alleviate poverty.
  • Employment under Mahatma Gandhi NREGA is a guaranteed legal right.
  • The major responsibility of the implementation rests with Panchayati Raj institutions.
  • Previous employment guarantee schemes (EGS) like ‘Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana’ (SGRY) Programme and National Food For Work Programme (NFFWP) were merged with MGNREGA to make it more effective.
  • The Act sets a minimum limit to the wages, to be paid with gender equality. The states are required to evolve a set of norms for the measurement of works and schedule of rates. The unemployment allowance must be paid if the work is not provided within the statutory limit of 15 days.


  • Activists say that the outlay for the scheme has remained nearly constant for the past three years, which, adjusting for inflation, amounts to a decrease.
  • The release of funds to the States is being delayed and the amounts have been capped. As a result, there has been a 16 per cent decline in employment from the 2013-14 figure.
  • Compared with 147 lakh person days generated in December 2013, only 123 lakh person days were generated in December 2014, with the decline sharper in poor States such as Bihar and Chhattisgarh.
  • Till December 2014 in the financial year 2014-15, 72 per cent of the total wages disbursed were delayed. And delays in wage payments have actually increased over time.
  • However, Evidence from independent research studies have shown that the MGNREGA has successfully curbed distress migration, had large effects on consumption and poverty of Dalit and Adivasi households, increased nutritional standards of households, provided risk resilience to small and marginal farmers and vastly expanded the financial inclusion net in the country.

Sources: The Hindu, NREGA, Wiki.

Sri Lanka adopts 19th Amendment

The Sri Lankan Parliament has adopted the 19th Constitutional Amendment Bill with an overwhelming majority.

What is it about?

The legislation envisages the dilution of many powers of Executive Presidency, which had been in force since 1978.

Important features of the Bill:

  • The reduction in the terms of President and Parliament from six years to five years.     (6 YEAR ===> 5 YEAR)
  • Re-introduction of a two-term limit that a person can have as President.  (ONLY 2 TERM AS PRESIDENT)
  • The power of President to dissolve Parliament only after four and a half years [unlike one year, as prevalent now.]
  • The revival of Constitutional Council and the establishment of independent commissions.
  • The President remains the head of Cabinet and he can appoint Ministers on the advice of Prime Minister.

Sources: The Hindu.

NY’s first India-born woman judge sworn in

Raja Rajeswari,

the first India-born woman to be appointed a judge in New York City , was sworn-in by Mayor Bill recently.


The Judiciary in US – As Per Its Constitution:

Article III

Section 1.

The judicial power of the United States, shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behaviour, and shall, at stated times, receive for their services, a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.

Section 2.

The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority;–to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls;–to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction;–to controversies to which the United States shall be a party;–to controversies between two or more states;–between a state and citizens of another state ;–between citizens of different states;–between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants of different states, and between a state, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens or subjects.

In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a state shall be party, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction.

In all the other cases before mentioned, the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and under such regulations as the Congress shall make.

The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury; and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any state, the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have directed.

Section 3.

Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.

The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture except during the life of the person attainted.

Sources: The Hindu.